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Question:

What is the difference between LPGS and NLAPS processing?

Answer:

Historically, two processing systems generated the USGS Landsat standard data products:

Landsat Product Generation System (LPGS) - Currently, all Landsat data is processed through LPGS. LPGS metadata is contained in a MTL.txt file, which accompanies all data files.

National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) - There are no NLAPS scenes in Collection 1 datasets. 

While the products generated by the LPGS and NLAPS systems are similar, there are geometric, radiometric, and data format differences. The Comparison of LPGS vs. NLAPS Web page describes these differences and provides a listing of L4-5 TM NLAPS scenes.