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The Landsat Level-2 Provisional Surface Temperature Science Product is included in the U.S. Landsat Analysis Ready Data (ARD) product bundle – which consists of the most geometrically accurate Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)/Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data that are consistently processed to the highest scientific standards and level of processing required for direct use in monitoring and assessing landscape change.

Landsat Surface Temperature represents the temperature of the Earth's surface in Kelvin (K) and is generated from Landsat top of atmosphere thermal infrared radiance, North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data, and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED).

Landsat Surface Temperature is processed to 30-meter spatial resolution in Albers Equal Area (AEA) projection using the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) datum and gridded to a common tiling scheme. Product is delivered in Georeferenced Tagged Image File Format (.tif) files.

Note: The Landsat Surface Temperature Science Product has reached a provisional level of maturity for the United States, meaning that its uncertainties are understood in multiple locations and assessments of its results have demonstrated positive science value.  Algorithm artifacts have been identified under certain observational conditions, and are currently being analyzed to develop and test solutions to enhance algorithmic implementation, reduce uncertainty, and improve future surface temperature products. Current algorithm performance is documented in the peer-reviewed literature listed on this web page and in the product guide.

The USGS is requesting that users of the surface temperature product  – before it is declared operational – include the following disclaimer:

"USGS Landsat Surface Temperature Science Product may report unvalidated results for certain observational conditions."

 

Product Availability

Landsat Surface Temperature data is available for the conterminous U.S., Alaska, and Hawaii and for the following date ranges:

  • Landsat 8 OLI: April 2013 to present
  • Landsat 7 ETM+: July 1999 to present
  • Landsat 5 TM: March 1984 to May 2012
  • Landsat 4 TM: July 1982 to December 1993

Figure 1: These images show Left: Surface Reflectance image (bands 6,5,4) and Right: color-enhanced Landsat  Surface Temperature for Landsat 8 CONUS ARD tile h004v002 (within Washington State) acquired on July 23, 2017. Blue areas in the Surface Temperature image indicate cooler temperatures; red areas indicate warmer temperatures.

 

Package Content

The Landsat Surface Temperature file package contains two primary raster products and several intermediate bands used by the Surface Temperature algorithm, to represent the temperature of the Earth’s land surface in Kelvin (K), as well as quality assessment information. The Surface Temperature file package includes a metadata file in Extensible Markup Language (.xml) format.

The table below lists the products and filenames that are delivered with the Landsat Surface Temperature product.

Product Description Delivered File Name Approximate File Size (Kbyte)
Surface Temperature (ST) Represents the temperature of the Earth’s surface in Kelvin (K). *_surface_temperature.tif 9,300
Surface Temperature Quality Assessment (STQA) Provides the Surface Temperature product uncertainty using a combination of uncertainty values and distance to cloud values. *_st_qa.tif 8,300
Atmospheric Transmittance layer (ATRAN) Displays the ratio of the transmitted radiation to the total radiation incident upon the medium (atmosphere). *_st_atmospheric_transmittance.tif 1,500
Emissivity layer (EMIS) Displays the ratio of the energy radiated from a material’s surface to that radiated from a blackbody. *_emis.tif 16,000
Emissivity Standard Deviation (EMSD) The extent of deviation of the emissivity product. This layer is used along with CDIST to create the STQA product. *_emis_stdev.tif 5,000
Upwelled Radiance layer (URAD) Displays the amount of electromagnetic radiation reflected upward from the ground’s surface. *_st_upwelled_radiance.tif 1,500
Downwelled Radiance layer (DRAD) Displays the thermal energy radiated onto the ground by all objects in a hemisphere surrounding it. *_st_downwelled_radiance.tif 1,500
Thermal Radiance layer (TRAD) Displays the values produced when thermal band reflectance is converted to radiance. *_st_thermal_radiance.tif 1,500
Distance to Cloud (CDIST) Represents the distance, in kilometers, that a pixel is from the nearest cloud pixel. This layer is used along with EMSD to create the STQA product. *_st_cloud_distance.tif 5,500

 

Caveats and Constraints

Most Landsat Collection 1 Level-1 scenes can be processed to generate a Surface Temperature product. In addition to the caveats listed on the Landsat ARD page, please consult the Landsat Surface Temperature Science Product Guide for additional product specific caveat explanations.

 

Data Access

The Landsat Surface Temperature product is available for download from EarthExplorerThe data is located under the Landsat category, Landsat Analysis Ready Data (ARD) subcategory, and listed as U.S. Landsat 4-8 ARD.

 

Documentation

Landsat Surface Temperature Product Guide

Landsat Analysis Ready Data (ARD) Data Format Control Book (DFCB)

Landsat Surface Temperature (ST) Digita Object Identification (DOI) number doi.org/10.5066/F7J38RTH

 

Citation Information

There are no restrictions on the use of Landsat Science Products. It is not a requirement of data use, but the following citation may be used in publication or presentation materials to acknowledge the USGS as a data source and to credit the original research.

Landsat Level 2 Surface Temperature Science Product courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey.

Cook, Monica J., "Atmospheric Compensation for a Landsat Land Surface Temperature Product" (2014). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from http://scholarworks.rit.edu/theses/8513.

Cook, M., Schott, J. R., Mandel, J., & Raqueno, N. (2014). Development of an operational calibration methodology for the Landsat thermal data archive and initial testing of the atmospheric compensation component of a Land Surface Temperature (LST) Product from the archive. Remote Sensing, 6(11), 11244-11266. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs61111244.

 

References

Berk, A., Anderson, G. P., Acharya, P. K., Bernstein, L. S., Muratov, L., Lee, J., ... & Lockwood, R. B. (2005, June). MODTRAN 5: a reformulated atmospheric band model with auxiliary species and practical multiple scattering options: update. In Defense and Security (pp. 662-667). International Society for Optics and Photonics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.606026.

Cook, Monica J., "Atmospheric Compensation for a Landsat Land Surface Temperature Product" (2014). Thesis. Rochester Institute of Technology. Accessed from http://scholarworks.rit.edu/theses/8513.

Cook, M., Schott, J. R., Mandel, J., & Raqueno, N. (2014). Development of an operational calibration methodology for the Landsat thermal data archive and initial testing of the atmospheric compensation component of a Land Surface Temperature (LST) Product from the archive. Remote Sensing, 6(11), 11244-11266. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/rs61111244

Cook, M., & Schott, J. R. (2014). Atmospheric Compensation for a Landsat Land Surface Temperature Product. Landsat Science Team Meeting, July 22-24, 2014; Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Accessed from https://landsat.usgs.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Schott_LST_LLST.pdf.

Hulley, G. C., Hughes, C. G., & Hook, S. J. (2012). Quantifying uncertainties in land surface temperature and emissivity retrievals from ASTER and MODIS thermal infrared data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), 117(D23). http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012JD018506.

Hulley, G. C., Hook, S. J., Abbott, E., Malakar, N., Islam, T., & Abrams, M. (2015). The ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset (ASTER GED): Mapping Earth's emissivity at 100 meter spatial scale. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(19), 7966-7976. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065564.

Laraby, K. G., Schott, J. R. (2018). Uncertainty estimation method and Landsat 7 global validation for the Landsat surface temperature product. Remote Sensing of Environment, 216, 472-481.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2018.06.026 

Laraby, K. G., Schott, J. R., & Raqueno, N. (2016). Developing a confidence metric for the Landsat land surface temperature product. Proc. SPIE 9840, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral and Ultraspectral Imagery, XXII, 98400C. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2222582.

Malakar, N. K., Hulley, G. C., Hook, S. J., Laraby, K., Cook, M., & Schott, J. R. (2018). An Operational Land Surface Temperature Product for Landsat Thermal Data: Methodology and Validation. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, (99), 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2018.2824828.

Mesinger, F., DiMego, G., Kalnay, E., Mitchell, K., Shafran, P. C., Ebisuzaki, W., ... & Ek, M. B. (2006). North American regional reanalysis. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 87(3), 343-360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-87-3-343.

Schaeffer,  B. A., Iiames,  J., Dwyer,  J., Urquhart,  E., Salls,  W., Rover,  J., & Seegers,  B., (2018). An initial validation of Landsat 5 and 7 derived surface water temperature for U.S. lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, International Journal of Remote Sensing, https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01431161.2018.1471545