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Landsat Higher-Level Science Data Products News Archive

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June 29, 2017 – Useful updates made to ESPA

EROS Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) users now have the ability to cancel orders. This option is located on each order status page on the ESPA on-demand interface or via an http PUT method through the ESPA API. Additionally, a new option exists to allow users to select the Pixel QA band as an individual output product for each scene ordered.

Details about both of these options can be found in the ESPA On-demand User Guide.

March 17, 2017 – Processing System Updated to Support Landsat Collection 1 Higher-Level Data Processing

Recent algorithm updates to the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) on-demand interface allow for the processing of Higher-Level data products (such as Surface Reflectance and surface reflectance-based Spectral Indices) for Landsat Collection 1 scenes.

There are many differences between Landsat Pre-Collection Higher-Level and Landsat Collection 1 Higher-Level data products generated by ESPA, which are briefly described in the tables below. Users should consult the respective product guides for complete information:  

Landsat 4-7 Surface Reflectance Product Guide
Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Product Guide

On March 30, 2017, Landsat Collection 1 Higher-Level data will become available on EarthExplorer.

ESPA-Generated Higher-Level Science Data Products
Pre-Collection Processing vs Collection 1 Processing

Differences in all Landsat Pre-Collection and Collection 1 ESPA-generated products

  Pre-Collection Collection 1
Landsat Scene Identifier       Scene ID
(LC80290292016186LGN00)
Product Identifier
(LC08_L1TP_029029_20160704_20170222_01_T1)
Included files   per-pixel solar zenith, solar azimuth, sensor zenith and
sensor azimuth bands (only for band 4)
Top-of-atmosphere (TOA)
Reflectance   
Calculated using scene-center solar zenith angles provided in the metadata (MTL.txt) file Calculated using per-pixel solar zenith angles derived from the
Angle Coefficient File (ANG.txt) file
Saturation band n/a bit-packed Radiometric Saturation (radsat_qa)
(contains saturation flags for all bands, including thermal)
Pixel Quality Band not included

pixel_qa included.
Constructed from the Level-1 BQA band’s fill, clear,
cloud shadow, snow/ice, and cloud confidence bits,
all of which are generated with the CFMask algorithm.
the “cloud” bit is created by dilating (or expanding)
the high-confidence cloud pixels;
the “water” bit is created by running CFMask’s water detection algorithm.
This allows the pixel_qa to contain nearly equivalent results as
the Pre-Collection cfmask and cfmask_conf bands.

CFMask cfmask and cfmask_conf bands included
can also be ordered manually in ESPA by selecting the “CFMask” option
cfmask and cfmask_conf bands not included
can be ordered manually in ESPA by selecting the “CFMask” option

Differences in Landsat 4-5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+ Pre-Collection and Collection 1 ESPA-generated products

  Pre-Collection Collection 1
Processing code (LEDAPS) Version 3.1.1    3/10/2017 Version 3.1.1    3/10/2017    [Release Notes]

Included files
(Landsat 7 example)

LE70280302017029EDC00.xml
LE70280302017029EDC00_cfmask.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_cfmask_conf.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_GCP.txt
LE70280302017029EDC00_MTL.txt
LE70280302017029EDC00_radsat_qa.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_adjacent_cloud_qa.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_atmos_opacity.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_band1.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_band2.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_band3.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_band4.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_band5.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_band7.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_cloud_qa.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_cloud_shadow_qa.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_ddv_qa.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_fill_qa.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_land_water_qa.tif
LE70280302017029EDC00_sr_snow_qa.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1.xml
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_ANG.txt
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_GCP.txt
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_MTL.txt
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_pixel_qa.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_radsat_qa.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sensor_azimuth_band4.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sensor_zenith_band4.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_solar_azimuth_band4.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_solar_zenith_band4.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sr_atmos_opacity.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sr_band1.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sr_band2.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sr_band3.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sr_band4.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sr_band5.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sr_band7.tif
LE07_L1TP_028030_20170129_20170224_01_T1_sr_cloud_qa.tif
Saturation band toa_qa band removed; replaced by radsat_qa band which indicates saturation
determined if any Level-1 digital number (DN) is 255. Now included with all Landsat 4-5 and Landsat 7 products.
Contains a radsat_qa band which indicates saturation
determined if any Level-1 digital number (DN) is 255.
Now included with all Landsat 4-5 and Landsat 7 products.
Quality Band specifics Individual QA bands (“sr_fill”, “sr_ddv”, etc.) included All QA bands bit-packed into a single QA band (sr_cloud_qa)
contents of bands are not altered, save for any changes introduced
by per-pixel TOA Reflectance input products.

Differences in Landsat 8 OLI Pre-Collection and Collection 1 ESPA-generated products

  Pre-Collection Collection 1
Processing code (LaSRC) Version 1.0.0   3/10/2017 Version 1.0.0   3/10/2017  [Release Notes]
Algorithm specific Attempts aerosol retrieval over all pixels, including cloud, cirrus cloud and cloud shadow.
Uses new water interpolation routine; applied to all pixels determined by the algorithm to be water.
Contains a new aerosol_qa band, which replaces the sr_ipflag and sr_cloud bands.
Attempts aerosol retrieval over all pixels, including cloud,
cirrus cloud, and cloud shadow.
Uses new water interpolation routine is applied to all pixels determined
by the algorithm to be water.
Contains a new aerosol_qa band has been implemented, which replaces
the sr_ipflag and sr_cloud bands.
Included files LC80280302017053LGN00.xml
LC80280302017053LGN00_cfmask.tif
LC80280302017053LGN00_cfmask_conf.tif
LC80280302017053LGN00_MTL.txt
LC80280302017053LGN00_sr_aerosol.tif
LC80280302017053LGN00_sr_band1.tif
LC80280302017053LGN00_sr_band2.tif
LC80280302017053LGN00_sr_band3.tif LC80280302017053LGN00_sr_band4.tif
LC80280302017053LGN00_sr_band5.tif
LC80280302017053LGN00_sr_band6.tif
LC80280302017053LGN00_sr_band7.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1.xml
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_ANG.txt
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_MTL.txt
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_pixel_qa.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_radsat_qa.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sensor_azimuth_band4.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sensor_zenith_band4.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_solar_azimuth_band4.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_solar_zenith_band4.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sr_aerosol.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sr_band1.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sr_band2.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sr_band3.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sr_band4.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sr_band5.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sr_band6.tif
LC08_L1TP_028030_20170222_20170301_01_T1_sr_band7.tif
Saturation not included Contains a radsat_qa band which indicates saturation determined if any
Level-1 DN is 65535
Quality Band specifics

sr_ipflag and sr_cloud bands incorporated into new aerosol_qa band

sr_ipflag and sr_cloud bands incorporated into new aerosol_qa band

 

October 14, 2016 – Upgrades to Higher-Level Data Processing System

On October 13, 2016, the following update was made to the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) On-Demand interface, the processing system that is used to create higher-level Landsat science products:

  1. Added the option of NetCDF output file format

The ESPA On-Demand Interface User Guide provides more details about the NetCDF option, along with the addition of the ESPA Application Programming Interface (API) information and access location.

June 10, 2016 - New Landsat 8 Surface Algorithm Coming Soon

Users familiar with Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance (L8SR) data are aware of the artifacts in the current provisional data products. After extensive research, redevelopment, and analysis, an updated version of the algorithm is ready for release, and it will improve L8 Surface Reflectance data products. By July 1, 2016, the “Land Surface Reflectance Code (LaSRC) will replace the existing L8SR algorithm used to produce L8 Surface Reflectance data products, and will be implementing the following changes:

  • The "blockiness" or image artifacts resulted from inputs to the aerosol retrieval which remained at the global climate model grid resolution versus being interpolated to the Landsat pixel resolution. These updates will eliminate the blockiness issue. A second level of blockiness occurred over areas where aerosol retrieval was not successful. The interpolation of those aerosols resulted in blocks of the same aerosol value. This has also been fixed with the implementation of a better aerosol interpolation method.
  • Image extents are now restricted to 200,000,000 pixels, doubling the previous limit
  • This new version of LaSRC tries to retrieve aerosols over all pixels, except cirrus pixels. The retrievals are then tested based first on the model residual and then on the NDVI combined with Band 5 reflectance. If these tests fail, then the pixel is marked as failed for aerosol retrieval. Any pixel which failed retrieval is ultimately attempted to be interpolated. Water pixels (flagged if the NDVI < 0.01), cloud pixels, and cirrus pixels are not interpolated. The final reflectance corrections are applied using the retrieved/interpolated aerosols.
  • Previous interpolation issues along coastal water bodies led us to implement a land/water mask to better identify coastal waters, since aerosols were not being retrieved over coastal waters and this resulted in significant blockiness along the coastal areas. Given the change in the new version of LaSRC to attempt aerosol retrieval over all pixels, the higher resolution land/water mask has been removed.
  • While interpolation solves the data continuity issues, it introduces additional uncertainty to the reflectance values in areas where aerosols were interpolated. Therefore, we are adding an additional band (unsigned 8-bit integer) with flags to indicate where aerosol measurements were successful, failed (likely water or clouds), or interpolated.

December 16, 2015 – Updates to ESPA ordering interface

Updates been made to the ESPA processing system include:

  • CFMask may now be ordered as a standalone product
  • Image extents are now restricted to 200,000,000 pixels, doubling the previous limit
  • Original Input Products (untouched from the source) have been removed as a product option. Input products (formerly Customized Input Products) are still available

The ESPA On Demand Interface User Guide provides more information on these changes.

September 28, 2015 – Update to Provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance (L8SR), Landsat 4-7 Surface Reflectance (LEDAPS) and CFmask shadow prediction

Provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance (L8SR) version 0.3.1 was implemented on September 28, 2015, and included changes to how the climate modeling grid (CMG) is accessed at scene edges, as well as at land/water boundaries. These changes are detailed in the L8SR Release Notes.

Landsat 4-7 Surface Reflectance (LEDAPS) version 2.3.1 was implemented on September 28, 2015, which includes bug fixes to saturation flagging. Saturation was previously incorrectly flagged as 16000, but is now flagged correctly at 20000. These changes are detailed in the LEDAPS Release Notes

For both LEDAPS and L8SR, the CFmask was modified to correctly select cloud heights for shadow projection. Previously, the ideal cloud height was not being selected.

May 28, 2015 - Surface Reflectance Processing of new Landsat 8 scenes available

Surface Reflectance processing has resumed for Landsat 8 scenes acquired after December 18, 2014. The processing was suspended during the thermal sensor (TIRS) side-b electronics swap and Level 1 reprocessing effort, as described in the May 8, 2015 Calibration Notice.  As noted on the calibration notice webpage, there may be missing data, or scenes that were processed to OLI-only; these scenes will not process to Surface Reflectance.

May 13, 2015 - Update to Provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance (L8SR) Output & CFmask Cloud Confidence Band Addition

Provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance (L8SR) version 0.3.0 was implemented on May 13, 2015 and includes improved land/water masking at coastal boundaries, greatly reducing the number of artifacts found at the edges of coastal features. These improvements are detailed in the “Known Issues” section of the Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Product Guide.

For Landsat 4-7 Surface Reflectance and Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance products, a provisional CFmask cloud confidence band is now being generated for each scene. The thresholds and attributes of the new band are detailed in the “CFmask Cloud Confidence Band” section found in the Landsat 4-7 Surface Reflectance Product Guide and the Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Product Guide.

Both LEDAPS and L8SR algorithms now use the thermal constants K1 and K2, earth-sun distance, radiometric gain/bias, and reflectance gain/bias values from the Level 1 metadata file (.MTL) file for computing the Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance and brightness temperatures where hard-coded values were previously used. Prior to certain March 17, 2015, the ETM+ .MTL file will not contain these fields, so the hard-coded values will continue to be used for TOA calculation.

April 16, 2015 - Landsat 8 TIRS Reprocessing Plans

Currently, surface reflectance (SR), top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, and SR-based spectral indices can be processed for Landsat 8 scenes acquired April 11, 2013 (DOY 101) through December 18, 2014 (DOY 352) only, due to changes made to Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data. (See the December 22, 2014 and December 24, 2014 Headlines for more details about the issue.)

After extensive investigations, the TIRS Mechanism Control Electronics was switched from the primary to redundant side on March 2, 2015. The sensor began collected data on March 4, however data collected from this date until March 12 were collected for calibration purposes only. Data collected from March 13 forward have valid TIRS data.

Beginning April 30, 2015, Landsat 8 scenes acquired from December 19, 2014 to March 13, 2015 will be reprocessed to include valid TIRS data. The reprocessing effort is expected to complete by May 18, 2015, after which Surface Reflectance and other high level processing for these scenes will resume. A new announcement will be made on this page when this processing will again become available.

More recent details can be found in the April 16, 2015 Headline. 

January 21, 2015 - Landsat 4-7 Surface Reflectance Fixes

Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) version 2.2.1 was implemented on January 21, 2015 and includes the correction of two issues introduced by LEDAPS 2.2.0 on December 23, 2014:

1) HDF Scientific Data Sets (SDS) Attributes for QA Bands - The fill value for QA bands was eliminated in LEDAPS 2.2.0, but an erroneous fill value was still present in the SDS attributes as -3333, which is used as an internal flag to signify that the fill value does not actually exist. The "fill" attribute has been removed for QA bands in HDF SDS in the new release.

2) Reversed Class Values in QA Bands- Many of the class numbers in the .XML files and the class descriptions in the HDF SDS files were erroneously reversed. These have now been corrected such that “0” definitively indicates a condition has not been met, and “255” indicates that a condition has been met for fill, dark dense vegetation, cloud, cloud shadow, snow, and adjacent cloud.

Note that these changes do not impact the data values, only the attribute descriptions listed within the files and their metadata.

January 15, 2015 – Known Issues Reporting for Provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Data Available

User feedback regarding the usability of Provisional Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Surface Reflectance (SR) data products is now available in the “Known Issues” section of the Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Product Guide.

December 23, 2014 - Provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Data Available

Provisional Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Surface Reflectance (SR) data products are now available through the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) On Demand Interface and EarthExplorer*.

As currently produced for Landsat 4-5 and Landsat 7 scenes, product options such as top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, surface reflectance (SR), and SR-based spectral indices are available for Landsat 8 scenes. Please Note: currently, only Landsat 8 scenes acquired from April 11, 2013 (DOY 101) through December 18, 2014 (DOY 352) can be processed to Surface Reflectance, due to the recent change of the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) acquired data. Please see the December 22, 2014 Headlines for more details.

* Surface Reflectance (SR) data only for individual scenes can be selected using EarthExplorer, under the Landsat CDR Data Sets. These requests will be sent to the ESPA On-Demand interface for processing and data delivery.

It is important to note that Landsat 8 scenes will not be processed with the same algorithm used for Landsat 4, 5 and 7 scenes. A new algorithm has been developed to take advantage of Landsat 8’s unique characteristics.

The L8SR algorithm currently uses the scene center for the sun angle calculation and then hard-codes the view zenith angle to 0. The solar zenith and view zenith angles are used for calculations as part of the atmospheric correction. Future plans may modify both LEDAPS and L8SR to calculate sun angles on a per-pixel basis.

Users are encouraged to review the Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Product Guide for more details and important information.

December 3, 2014 - Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record Development Nears Completion

By the end of 2014, Provisional Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Surface Reflectance (SR) Climate Data Records (CDRs) will be available through the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) On Demand Interface. As currently produced for Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ scenes, product options such as top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, surface reflectance (SR), and SR-based spectral indices will be available for Landsat 8 scenes.

It is important to note that Landsat 8 scenes will not be processed with the same algorithm used for Landsat 4, 5 and 7 scenes. A new algorithm has been developed to take advantage of Landsat 8’s unique characteristics.   The L8SR algorithm currently uses the scene center for the sun angle calculation and then hardcodes the view zenith angle to 0. The solar zenith and view zenith angles are used for calculations as part of the atmospheric correction. Future plans may modify both LEDAPS and L8SR to calculate sun angles on a per-pixel basis.

Questions and feedback pertaining to this sample can be sent to custserv@usgs.gov.

The tables below provide information about the L8SR algorithm and the Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance CDR products.

Landsat 8 SR algorithm compared to the existing LEDAPS algorithm (for Landsat 4-5 and 7)

Parameter Landsat 4-5, 7 (LEDAPS) Landsat 8 OLI (L8SR)
(Original) research grant NASA GSFC, MEaSUREs (Masek) NASA GSFC
Global coverage Yes Yes
TOA Visible (1-5,7) + Brightness temp (6)

bands

Visible (1-7) +Thermal (10-11)  bands
SR Visible (1-5,7)  bands Visible (1-7)  bands
Radiative transfer model 6S Internal algorithm
Thermal correction level TOA only TOA only
Thermal band units Kelvin Kelvin
Pressure NCEP Grid Surface pressure is calculated

internally based on the elevation

Water vapor NCEP Grid MODIS CMA
Air temperature NCEP Grid MODIS CMA
DEM Global Climate Model DEM Global Climate Model DEM
Ozone  OMI/TOMS MODIS CMG Coarse resolution ozone
AOT Correlation between chlorophyll

absorption and bound water absorption

of scene

MODIS CMA
Sun angle Scene center from input metadata Scene center from input metadata
View zenith angle From input metadata Hard-coded to 0
Undesirable zenith angle correction N/A TOA substituted for SR when solar zenith angle

> 76 degrees

Pan ban processed? No No
XML metadata? Yes Yes
Brightness temperature calculated Yes (Band 6 TM/ETM+) Yes (Bands 10 & 11 TIRS)
Cloud mask CFmask CFmask
Data format INT16 INT16
Fill values -9999 -9999
QA bands Cloud

Adjacent cloud

Cloud shadow

DDV

Fill

Land water

Snow

Atmospheric opacity

Cloud

Adjacent cloud

Cloud shadow

Aerosols

Cirrus

6S=Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum, AOT= Aerosol Optical Thickness, CFmask=C Version of Function Of Mask,

CMA= Climate Modeling Grid - Aerosol, CMG= Climate Modeling Grid, DDV= Dark Dense Vegetation, DEM= Digital Elevation Model,

ETM+= Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, GSFC= Goddard Space Flight Center, INT= Integer, MEaSUREs= Making Earth Science Data Records

for Use in Research Environments, MODIS= Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, N/A=Not Applicable, NASA=National

Aeronautics and Space Administration, NCEP= National Centers for Environmental Prediction, OLI=Operational Land Imager,

OMI= Ozone Monitoring Instrument, QA=Quality Assurance, SR= Surface Reflectance, TIRS= Thermal Infrared Sensor, TM= Thematic

Mapper, TOA= Top of Atmosphere Reflectance, TOMS= Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, XML= Extensible Markup Language

Provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance (SR) Specifications

Band Designation Band Name Data Type Units Range Valid Range Fill Value Saturate Value Scale Factor
sr_band1 Band 1 INT16 Reflectance -2000 – 16000 0 - 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
sr_band2 Band 2 INT16 Reflectance -2000 – 16000 0 - 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
sr_band3 Band 3 INT16 Reflectance -2000 – 16000 0 - 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
sr_band4 Band 4 INT16 Reflectance -2000 – 16000 0 - 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
sr_band5 Band 5 INT16 Reflectance -2000 – 16000 0 - 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
sr_band6 Band 6 INT16 Reflectance -2000 – 16000 0 - 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
sr_band7 Band 7 INT16 Reflectance -2000 – 16000 0 - 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
sr_cloud Cloud QA UINT8 Flag 0-7 0-7 NA NA NA

INT16=16-bit signed integer, UINT8=8-bit unsigned integer, QA= quality assurance, CFmask= C version of Function of Mask, NA=not applicable

Provisional Landsat 8 SR Cloud Quality Assurance Bit Values

Bit Interpretation
0 Cirrus cloud
1 Cloud
2 Adjacent to cloud
3 Cloud shadow
4 Aerosol
5 Aerosol
6 Unused
7 Internal test

Provisional Landsat 8 SR Cloud Quality Assurance Interpreted Aerosol Values

Value Interpretation
16 Low aerosol content
32 Moderate aerosol content
48 High aerosol content

Provisional Landsat 8 SR Top of Atmosphere Reflectance – Bands 1-5, 7 Specifications

Band Designation Band Name Data Type Units Range Valid Range Fill Value Saturate Value Scale Factor
toa_band1 Band 1 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 – 16000 0 – 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
toa_band2 Band 2 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 – 16000 0 – 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
toa_band3 Band 3 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 – 16000 0 – 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
toa_band4 Band 4 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 – 16000 0 – 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
toa_band5 Band 5 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 – 16000 0 – 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
toa_band6 Band 6 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 – 16000 0 – 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
toa_band7 Band 7 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 – 16000 0 – 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001
toa_band9 Band 9 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 – 16000 0 – 10000 -9999 20000 0.0001

INT16=16-bit signed integer, TOA= top of atmosphere

Provisional Top of Atmosphere Reflectance – Bands 10-11 Brightness Temperature Specifications

Band Designation Band Name Data Type Units Range Valid Range Fill Value Saturate Value Scale Factor
toa_band10 Band 10 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 - 16000 0-10000 -9999 20000 0.1
toa_band11 Band 11 Reflectance INT16 Reflectance -100 - 16000 0-10000 -9999 20000 0.1

INT16=16-bit signed integer, TOA= top of atmosphere

November 3, 2014 - Processing resumes for data acquired after October 17, 2014

Recently, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climate grid data [which is used by the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) in deriving surface reflectance (SR) data for Landsat TM (L4-5) and Landsat ETM+ (L7) scenes] changed product formats from netCDF3 to netCDF4.

Due to these changes, LEDAPS was unable to process SR for data acquired after October 17, 2014 (DOY 290). Modifications to the LEDAPS code have been made to accommodate the new NCEP products, and data processing has now resumed. Please note: the reflectance corrections and format of the surface reflectance data products is not changing, and no reprocessing of data products before DOY 290 2014 will be necessary.

October 10, 2014 – Upcoming Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Data Products

As announced in the latest Landsat Update, prototype Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance product options will be available to all users via the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) On Demand Interface (http://espa.cr.usgs.gov/) in the upcoming months.

Landsat 8 will not be processed with the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) that is used for Landsat 4, 5 and 7 SR data. A new algorithm has been developed to take advantage of Landsat 8’s unique characteristics.

The original L8 SR code was written in FORTRAN and output only SR. The USGS EROS translation to a C version adds options for TOA reflectance and SR-based spectral indices.

All Landsat 8 scenes will be processed to SR products, including pre-WRS2; however, scenes with a solar zenith angle greater than 76 degrees can be corrected only to TOA reflectance.

More details about the upcoming L8 SR data, as well as a better known timeframe of availability will be provided on this site. Relevant documentation will also be made available before public release.

August 19, 2014 – Upcoming changes to ESPA output file names

By the end of August, the "fmask" band's suffix will permanently change to "cfmask" to accurately reflect the algorithm used in ESPA (for example, the cloud mask for the scene LE70390372008210EDC00 will be named "LE70390372008210EDC00_cfmask" instead of "LE70390372008210EDC00_fmask".) Please update any programs or scripts you may be using to reflect this change.

Subsequent changes will be carried out in the XML metadata files:

  1. The "name" variable will be "cfmask" instead of "fmask"
  2. The "short_name" variable will be "LXXCFMASK" instead of "LXXFMSK", where LXX could be LT4, LT5 or LE7.
  3. The "long_name" variable will be "cfmask_band" instead of "fmask_band"

August 15, 2014 – Addition of MODIS data products to ESPA

By the end of August 2014, the following MODIS data will be available via the ESPA on-demand interface:

MOD and MYD 09 - all Surface Reflectance products (Version 005)

MOD and MYD 13 – all Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) products (Version 005)

ESPA’s existing output format, reprojection, extent and pixel resizing options will become available for these products, and can be applied simultaneously with available Landsat 4-5 and Landsat 7 scenes. Production of spectral indices (SIs) and climate data records (CDRs) cannot be produced from MODIS scenes.

Details about the MODIS data products listed above can be found on this NASA LPDAAC web page.

July 21, 2014 – Changes to ESPA Processing and Output options of Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record (CDR) data products

On July 29, 2014, the EROS Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) On-demand interface will be upgraded to incorporate more high-level processing options for Landsat 4/5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ Surface Reflectance products. Interface updates include:

  • Re-projection options for Polar Stereographic
  • Re-projection and subset functionality for L1T products
  • User-defined output formats for HDF-EOS2 (.hdf) , GeoTIFF (.tif), and Binary (.img):

HDF: A separate HDF file for each product type requested in the order (i.e. Source Products, Top of Atmosphere Reflectance, etc.) will be returned. Each HDF file will contain a number of science data sets (SDS), which represent the individual bands in that product. Each band is stored as an external SDS, and there will be .img files for each SDS, in addition to the product’s HDF file.

In the case of ETM+ level 1 products, the HDF file will contain 2 grids. The first grid includes the 30-meter Bands 1-7 data. The second grid includes the 15-meter Band 8 data. Because of the differences in spatial resolution, an ENVI header file cannot be written and delivered.

An XML file will be delivered containing global metadata and band metadata for the desired bands.

GeoTIFF: A single GeoTIFF file for each band requested in the order will be returned. An XML file will be delivered containing global metadata and band metadata for the desired bands.

Binary: A single file (.img file and associated .hdr file) for each band requested in the order will be returned. The .img file contains the raw binary image data and the .hdr file contains the ENVI header for that band. An XML file will be delivered containing global metadata and band metadata for all desired bands.

Metadata will be delivered in an Extensible Markup Language (.XML) file. The brightness temperature delivered as Band 6 in the top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product will be labeled in Kelvin instead of currently-noted Celsius.

NOTE: Surface Reflectance data products requested from EarthExplorer will be delivered in GeoTIFF format only.

June 26, 2014 – ESPA Login Changes

Users are reminded that as of today, June 26, 2014, the ESPA On-Demand interface now uses the USGS login credentials - the same used to access EarthExplorer.

May 27, 2014 – Upcoming Login Changes to ESPA

During the week of June 23, 2014, the username and password needed to request Landsat Surface Reflectance and Spectral Indices products through the ESPA On-Demand interface will be disabled. Users may instead enter the site with USGS authenticated registration credentials (the same used to access EarthExplorer).

March 28, 2014 – Upcoming Changes to Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Records, Sample Data Available

In the near future, several changes will be made to the processing and output options of SR CDR products. One change will allow users to select from three output formats: HDF, GeoTIFF, or Binary. (Surface Reflectance data products requested from EarthExplorer will be delivered in GeoTIFF format only.) The metadata will be delivered in an Extensible Markup Language (.XML) file. The brightness temperature delivered as Band 6 in the top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product will be labeled in Kelvin instead of currently-noted Celsius.

November 30, 2013 –Landsat surface reflectance-derived spectral indices (NDVI, EVI, SAVI, MSAVI, NDMI, NBR, NBR2) are available on demand from ESPA.

July 15, 2013 - Landsat QA Tools Updated

The Landsat QA Tools have been updated to include a bit extraction function to interpret Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) Quality Assurance (QA).

July 8, 2013 – Surface Reflectance Available for Landsat 4 TM Scenes

Surface Reflectance products for Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) are now available from the ESPA On-Demand nterface or EarthExplorer.

July 8, 2013 – Updates to Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Records

The Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record (CDR) now includes an alternative cloud and cloud shadow mask layer, generated from a C version of Boston University’s Function of Mask (Fmask). Please refer to the Product Guide for details.

May 17, 2013 – Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record Available through EarthExplorer

Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record (CDR) products are available on-demand for many Landsat 5 and all Landsat 7 scenes through EarthExplorer.

April 30, 2013 – Updated LEDAPS Processing Algorithm 

The final fiscal year 2013 version of the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS 1.2.1) is available for processing Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record (CDR) products on-demand. This new version will process Landsat scenes acquired over Antarctica, handling the Polar Stereographic map projection. Details are available in the new Product Guide and Release Notes.

March 27, 2013 – Additional Options Added to EROS Science Processing Architecture On-Demand Production Services

EROS Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) on-demand production services now include options to select certain products individually or in packages. Options include surface reflectance, top of atmosphere reflectance, source data, source metadata, and surface reflectance-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Use of this new functionality is described in the updated Surface Reflectance Product Guide.

March 27, 2013 – Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System Version 1.2.0 Available

Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) version 1.2.0 is available for on-demand production of surface reflectance data. Major changes include: Polar Stereographic support, application of auxiliary files for atmospheric correction based on scene acquisition time read from the source metadata, and a fix for a 0.5 degree rounding error in sun angle calculations. Complete details are available in the updated LEDAPS Release Notes and the Surface Reflectance Product Guide.

January 16, 2013 – Source metadata included with Surface Reflectance Products

All source information is now included in Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) surface reflectance packages. Please review the LEDAPS Release Notes and updated Surface Reflectance Product Guide for details.

January 3, 2013 –Surface Reflectance Collections Available on EarthExplorer

The Global Land Survey (GLS) collections from 2000, 2005, and 2010 have been processed to surface reflectance and are now accessible through EarthExplorer (EE), from the Landsat CDR/ECV data set.

December 6, 2012 - Surface Reflectance Production beyond April 2012

An updated version of Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS 1.1.1) includes the most recent ancillary data available for atmospheric correction. Requests can now be made for data within one week of acquisition. Please review the LEDAPS Release Notes and updated Surface Reflectance Product Guide for details.

November 27, 2012 - LEDAPS 1.1.0 Released

A new version of Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) code has been implemented for Landsat Surface Reflectance processing. Most noticeable will be a new metadata file name and corrected fill/gap labels in the quality assurance (QA) layers. Please review the LEDAPS Release Notes for details.

October 25, 2012 - New Surface Reflectance Algorithms Released

Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System has been base-lined as LEDAPS 1.0.0. All surface reflectance produced from this date forward will be generated using updated software.

Please review the LEDAPS Release Notes for details.

October 15, 2012 - Global Land Survey Collections Processed to Surface Reflectance

Global Land Survey (GLS) collections from 2010 and 2005 have been processed to surface reflectance and are available for discovery and download from the ESPA GLS Visualization Interface. No registration is required.

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