Landsat Missions

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Landsat 5 History

March 1, 1984 – January 2013

Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) operational imaging ended in November 2011.
Landsat 5 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) was powered back on in 2012 and collected data until January 2013.
The satellite was decommissioned June 5, 2013.

Landsat 5 added to Guinness Book of World Records!
How to Manage a Satellite Going 17K MPH - The Story of Landsat 5
December 2012 - USGS Decommissioning Announcement
Landsat 5 Decommissioning Details
The Legacy of Landsat 5: Your Thoughts on Its Service and Legacy!
March 2009 - Earth Observing Landsat 5 Turns 25 Years Old (NASA video)
 

Figure 1. Landsat 5

Participants

  • NASA
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
  • Earth Observation Satellite Company (EOSAT)
  • Department of the Interior (DOI) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
  • Manufacturers: General Electric (GE) Astrospace and Hughes Santa Barbara Remote Sensing
     

Launch

  • Date: March 1, 1984
  • Vehicle: Delta 3920
  • Launched by: NASA
  • Site: Vandenberg Air Force Base, California
     

Spacecraft

  • 3-axis stabilized, zero momentum with control of 0.01 deg using reaction wheels
  • Aluminum with graphite struts
  • Hydrazine propulsion system
  • Single solar array with 1-axis articulation
  • Three Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) batteries provide 100 Ampere-Hour (AHr) total
  • Retractable boom (4 m long) with 2 powered joints supports the articulated High Gain Antenna, which downlinks data via Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)
  • Communications system uses S,X,L, and Ku Bands
  • Weight: approximately 4,800 lbs (2,200 kg)
     

Communications

  • Direct downlink with TDRSS
  • Data rate: 85 Mbps
  • Quantisation: 8 bit (256 levels)
     

Orbit

  • Worldwide Reference System-2 (WRS-2) path/row system
  • Circular, sun-synchronous, near-polar orbit at an altitude of 705 km (438 mi)
  • Inclined at 98.2°
  • Repeat cycle: 16 days
  • Swath width: 185 km (115 mi)
  • Equatorial crossing time: 9:45 a.m. +/- 15 minutes
     

Sensors

Multispectral Scanner (MSS)

  • Acquisitions of Landsat 5 MSS data over the United States ceased in 1992; global acquisitions ended in 1999. Limited acquisitions were made from June 2012 through January 2013, after the loss of the TM sensor on the satellite.
  • Four spectral bands (identical to Landsat 1 and 2):
    • Band 4 Visible green (0.5 to 0.6 µm)
    • Band 5 Visible red (0.6 to 0.7 µm)
    • Band 6 Near-Infrared (0.7 to 0.8 µm)
    • Band 7 Near-Infrared (0.8 to 1.1 µm)
  • Six detectors for each spectral band provided six scan lines on each active scan
  • Ground Sampling Interval (pixel size): 57 x 79 m
     

Thematic Mapper (TM)

  • Added the mid-range infrared to the data
  • Seven spectral bands, including a thermal band:
    • Band 1 Visible (0.45 - 0.52 µm) 30 m
    • Band 2 Visible (0.52 - 0.60 µm) 30 m
    • Band 3 Visible (0.63 - 0.69 µm) 30 m
    • Band 4 Near-Infrared (0.76 - 0.90 µm) 30 m
    • Band 5 Near-Infrared (1.55 - 1.75 µm) 30 m
    • Band 6 Thermal (10.40 - 12.50 µm) 120 m
    • Band 7 Mid-Infrared (2.08 - 2.35 µm) 30 m
  • Ground Sampling Interval (pixel size): 30 m reflective, 120 m thermal
     

Other Characteristics

  • Also known as Landsat-D
  • Scene size: 170 km x 185 km (106 mi x 115 mi)
  • Design Life: Minimum of 3 year

 

Landsat 1 Landsat 2 Landsat 3 Landsat 4 Landsat 5 Landsat 6 Landsat 7 Landsat 8

About

Landsat represents the world's longest continuously acquired collection of space-based moderate-resolution land remote sensing data. Four decades of imagery provides a unique resource for those who work in agriculture, geology, forestry, regional planning, education, mapping, and global change research. Landsat images are also invaluable for emergency response and disaster relief.

 

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The Landsat Update is an informal communication tool, prepared periodically and distributed electronically to USGS Landsat partners, to provide information about Landsat activities and related topics of interest.

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