U.S. Landsat Analysis Ready Data (ARD)
- What are U.S. Landsat Analysis Ready Data (ARD)?
- What is the U.S. Landsat ARD tile grid system?
- How do I determine which U.S. Landsat ARD tile covers my area of interest?
- What products are available for each U.S. Landsat ARD tile?
- What is the latency of U.S. Landsat ARD?
- What band combinations are used for U.S. Landsat ARD browse images?
- Why do some U.S. Landsat ARD tiles display areas of no data?
- What artifacts have been found in U.S. Landsat ARD?
- What are Landsat Collections?
- What are Landsat Collection 1 Tiers?
- How usable are Collection 1 “Real-Time” scenes?
- How long does it take for Landsat 7 and/or Landsat 8 Real-Time scenes to be reprocessed into Tier 1 or Tier 2?
- How can I access Landsat Collection 1 data?
- What are the file sizes of the Collection 1 Level-1 data products?
- What are the Collection 1 processing data changes or improvements?
- How can I tell the difference between Landsat Collection 1 data and Landsat data I have downloaded in the past?
- I have a list of Landsat Scene IDs; how can I determine the corresponding Landsat Product Identifier?
- How does the Scan Line Corrector (SLC) status affect the tier classifications of Landsat 7 scenes?
- What is the Angle Coefficient file and how is it used?
- What is the Saturation Bits Parameter in the metadata file?
- What is the difference between the Scene Cloud Cover and the Land Cloud Cover Scores?
- What is CFMask?
- Can the CFMask be used effectively without thermal data?
Mission and Sensors
- What are the orbit paths of the Landsat satellites?
- What are the acquisition schedules for the Landsat satellites?
- How are acquisitions planned for Landsat satellites?
- Can acquisition requests be made for a specific date and location?
- How can I find the acquisition time for an image?
- What is the Worldwide Reference System (WRS)?
Data Access and Delivery
- How do I search for and download Landsat products?
- After a Landsat scene is collected, when will it become available for search and download?
- Are all collected Landsat scenes held in the USGS Landsat archive?
- How do I search for and download ascending (nighttime) scenes?
- How do I submit a bulk download request for Landsat or other data?
- There are two band 6 files with the Landsat 7 data I downloaded. What is the difference between these files?
- Are there any restrictions on the use or redistribution of Landsat data?
- What are the processing levels for Landsat data?
- How do I determine the processing level of the Landsat scene I have downloaded?
- Does Landsat processing include atmospheric correction?
- What is the geometric accuracy of a Landsat 7 ETM+ systematically corrected processed product?
- What is the difference between LPGS and NLAPS processing?
- Where can I find the latest information about Landsat data products?
- What are the band designations for the Landsat satellites?
- What is the naming convention for Landsat scenes?
- What are LandsatLook images?
- What is Landsat 7 ETM+ SLC-off data?
- How do Landsat 7 ETM+ SLC-off data products compare to previous Landsat 7 data?
- What are gap mask files?
- What is Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS Pre-WRS-2 data?
- What is the Landsat 8 Pre-Collection Quality Assessment (QA) band and how is it used?
- How is Landsat 8’s Coastal/Aerosol band (Band 1) used?
- How is Landsat 8’s Cirrus band (Band 9) used?
- How are the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) thermal bands aboard Landsat 8 used?
Browse Images and Metadata
- Where can I find the metadata for the Landsat scene I just downloaded?
- How is the percentage of cloud cover calculated in a Landsat scene?
- Why is the cloud cover reported as "0.00" for night scenes?
- What band combination is used for Landsat browse images?
- Why are there gridlines on the SLC-off browse images?
- Why is there so much color variation among the Landsat browse images?
- Why do some browse images have a color shift midway through the scene?
- Why do some Landsat browse images appear pixilated?
- Why are some browse images black?
- What is the LandsatLook Viewer?
Calibration and Technical Details
- What are Calibration Parameter Files?
- What is the difference between the CPF Effective date and Version date?
- What are Bias Parameter Files?
- What are Response Linearization Look Up Tables?
- What is definitive ephemeris?
- Where can I find the solar exoatmospheric spectral irradiances (ESUN) values for Landsat 1-5 MSS, 4-5 TM, and Landsat 7 data?
- How accurate is the radiometric calibration of Landsat images?
- What is a gain change?
- How is radiance calculated?
- How is at-sensor reflectance calculated for Landsat 4-5 or Landsat 7?
- How is at-sensor temperature calculated for the thermal infrared bands (6L and 6H) of Landsat 7 ETM+?
- What is the minimal change in temperature that is detectable from the Landsat 7 thermal band imagery?
- What is the accuracy of the Global Land Survey 2000 (GLS2000) dataset?
- How does Landsat 8's 12-bit data improve data products?
- Where can I find the solar exoatmospheric spectral irradiances (ESUN) values for Landsat 8 OLI data?
- Why do Southern Hemisphere scenes not display the correct UTM designation?
- What are Landsat TM "no-PCD" scenes?
- What are some known issues that users may find in Landsat data?
- What is a Partial Aperture Calibration (PAC) scene?
- Why are there lines across my Landsat TM image?
- Why am I seeing slight vertical striping in some Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images?
- Why are there negative values observed over water in some Landsat surface reflectance products?
Applications and Interpretation
- How do I open Landsat data files?
- What are the best spectral bands to use for my study?
- Can Landsat MSS images be compared to Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI images?
- What could be causing the "seamline" in a mosaic of multiple images?
- How do I fill in the gaps in my Landsat 7 SLC-off image?
- If gap mask files are not provided with the Landsat 7 data, can I create my own?
- Which images will work best to fill in the gaps in Landsat 7 ETM+ SLC-off data?
- What is pan-sharpening and how can I create a pan-sharpened image?
- What are the _VER.jpg and _VER.txt files that are included with the MSS and TM data I downloaded, and how can I use them?
- How does data from Sentinel-2A’s MultiSpectral Instrument compare to Landsat data?