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Landsat Missions

Landsat Surface Reflectance High Level Data Products

Surface Reflectance High Level Data Products support land surface change studies. Landsat Surface Reflectance products are considered provisional.

Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) or Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)

For Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) or Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, Surface Reflectance data are generated from the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS), a specialized software originally developed through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) grant by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the University of Maryland (Masek et al., 2006).

The software applies Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) atmospheric correction routines to Level-1 data products. Water vapor, ozone, geopotential height, aerosol optical thickness, and digital elevation are input with Landsat data to the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer models to generate top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, surface reflectance, brightness temperature, and masks for clouds, cloud shadows, adjacent clouds, land, and water.

Specific details about Landsat 4-5 and 7 Surface Reflectance data products can be found in the Landsat 4-7 Surface Reflectance Product Guide.

Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)

Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance data are generated from the Landsat Surface Reflectance Code (LaSRC) – this is not the same algorithm used to create Landsat 4-5 and 7 Surface Reflectance data products. Most notably, LaSRC makes use of the coastal aerosol band to perform aerosol inversion tests, uses auxiliary climate data from MODIS and uses a unique radiative transfer model. Additionally, LaSRC hardcodes the view zenith angle to “0”, and the solar zenith and view zenith angles are used for calculations as part of the atmospheric correction.

Specific details about LaSRC and Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance data products can be found in the Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Product Guide.

Differences between Landsat 4–7 and Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance algorithms

6S Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum, AOT Aerosol Optical Thickness, CFmask C Version of Function Of Mask, CMA Climate Modeling Grid - Aerosol, CMG Climate Modeling Grid, DDV Dark Dense Vegetation, DEM Digital Elevation Model, ETM+ Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus, GSFC Goddard Space Flight Center, INT Integer, MEaSUREs Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments, MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, N/A Not Applicable, NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction, OLI Operational Land Imager, OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument, QA Quality Assurance, SR Surface Reflectance, TIRS Thermal Infrared Sensor, TM Thematic Mapper, TOA Top of Atmosphere Reflectance, TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, XML Extensible Markup Language

Parameter

Landsat 4–5, 7 (LEDAPS)

Landsat 8 OLI (LaSRC)

(Original) research grant

NASA GSFC, MEaSUREs (Masek)

NASA GSFC (Vermote)

Global coverage

Yes

Yes

TOA

Visible (1–5,7) + Brightness temp (6) bands

Visible (1–7, 9) +Thermal (10–11)  bands

SR

Visible (1–5,7)  bands

Visible (1–7)  bands (OLI/TIRS only)

Radiative transfer model

6S

Internal algorithm

Thermal correction level

TOA only

TOA only

Thermal band units

Kelvin

Kelvin

Pressure

NCEP Grid

Surface pressure is calculated internally based on the elevation

Water vapor

NCEP Grid

MODIS CMA

Air temperature

NCEP Grid

MODIS CMA

DEM

Global Climate Model DEM

Global Climate Model DEM

Ozone

OMI/TOMS

MODIS CMG Coarse resolution ozone

AOT

Correlation between chlorophyll absorption and bound water absorption of scene

MODIS CMA

Sun angle

Scene center from input metadata

Scene center from input metadata

View zenith angle

From input metadata

Hard-coded to 0

Undesirable zenith angle correction

SR not processed when solar zenith angle > 76 degrees

SR not processed when solar zenith angle > 76 degrees

Pan band processed?

No

No

XML metadata?

Yes

Yes

Brightness temperature calculated

Yes (Band 6 TM/ETM+)

Yes (Bands 10 & 11 TIRS)

Cloud mask

CFmask

CFmask

Data format

INT16

INT16

Fill values

-9999

-9999

QA bands

Cloud
Adjacent cloud
Cloud shadow
DDV
Fill
Land water
Snow
Atmospheric opacity

Cloud
Adjacent cloud
Cloud shadow
Aerosols
Cirrus
Aerosol Interpolation

Caveats and Constraints

Most Landsat 4-8 scenes in the USGS archive can be processed to Surface Reflectance. Newly collected Landsat 8 and Landsat 7 scenes become suitable for processing within one week of data acquisition. Please note the following caveats:

  1. Due to missing auxiliary input data and/or necessary thermal data, Surface Reflectance processing cannot be applied to data acquired during the dates listed below.

    Landsat 8

    2015:
    January 30 to February 19 (DOY 30 to 50)
    Thermal data unavailable*

     
    March 2 to March 4 (DOY 61 to 63)
    Thermal data unavailable


    2016:
    February 19 to February 27 (DOY 50 to 58)
    Auxiliary data unavailable

     
    August 8 to August 10 (DOY 221 to 223)
    Auxiliary data unavailable

    *Thermal data unavailable for select path/rows; see May 8, 2015 calibration notice for details.

    Landsat 7

    2016:
    May 30 to June 12 (DOY 151 to 164)
    Auxiliary data unavailable


    Landsat 4, Landsat 5

    1982-1989:
    Dates vary
     

    Level-1 products for a number of Landsat 4-5 TM scenes processed through the National Landsat Archive Processing System (NLAPS) cannot be processed to Surface Reflectance, due to format and calibration differences from the current Landsat Product Generation System (LPGS). These scenes will be removed from submitted orders, and the order status will be updated to notify users why the scenes were removed.

  2. The efficacy of land surface reflectance correction is likely to be reduced in hyper-arid or snow-covered regions, areas with low sun angle conditions, coastal regions where land area is small, relative to adjacent water, or areas with extensive cloud contamination.

    Corrections may not be accurate to data acquired over high latitudes (> 65 degrees North or South). Landsat 7 ETM+ inputs are not gap-filled in the surface reflectance production. Users can refer to the quality assurance (QA) layers for pixel-level condition and validity flags.

Data Access

Surface Reflectance High Level Data Products can be ordered through the following pages:

USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) On Demand Interface (https://espa.cr.usgs.gov/)

To begin the order, upload a text file (*.txt) listing one Landsat Level 1 or MODIS scene identifier (filename) on each line. Scene identifiers can be found in the search results on EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov) or GloVis (http://glovis.usgs.gov).

After uploading the scene list text file, a number of options can be selected, including:

All orders submitted through ESPA are processed within 2-5 days. Email notifications are sent after the order is placed, and also after the data is processed and ready to download. *Note: Data requested through ESPA are not accessible using the EarthExplorer interface or Bulk Download Application (BDA).

EarthExplorer (http://earthexplorer.usgs.gov)

Surface Reflectance (SR) data only for individual scenes can be selected using EarthExplorer, under the Landsat Archive Data Sets section. These requests will be sent to the ESPA On-Demand interface for processing and data delivery.

Bulk Download Options for High Level Science Data Products

RSS Feed and DownThemAll – Utilizes Mozilla Firefox web browser’s DownThemAll Utility

ESPA Bulk Download Client - Utilizes Python scripts for data downloads

Data Tools

Data manipulation tools that function with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Land products are likely to also work with Landsat Surface Reflectance High Level Data Products: http://landsat.usgs.gov/cdrtools.php.

Landsat Surface Reflectance Documents

Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+

Product Guide: Landsat CDR Surface Reflectance, on-demand version
Product Guide: Landsat CDR Surface Reflectance, EarthExplorer version
Release Notes: Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing system (LEDAPS)
LEDAPS Algorithm Description Document White Paper

Landsat 8

Product Guide: Provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Product, on-demand version
Product Guide: Provisional Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Product, EarthExplorer version
Release Notes: Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance (L8SR) Processing

User Guide: Earth Resources Observations and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) on Demand Interface

Please contact User Services with any feedback, comments, or questions about Landsat Surface Reflectance data products. We are particularly interested in knowing:

  1. How data are being used (e.g., objectives and methods of analysis)
  2. Details about data analysis and/or findings
  3. The extent to which the data were observed to be free of errors and/or artifacts
  4. The extent to which the data were easy to understand, manipulate, and apply to the task at hand (e.g., file size, file format, scaling, projection, metadata, per-pixel QA)
  5. Data retrieval ease of use
  6. The extent to which the data are beneficial and provide advantages from their use (e.g., over and above standard Landsat L1T products)
  7. How the data can be improved to suit user needs
  8. Whether these products should be offered as a USGS standard product in the future

 

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Page Last Modified: 08/23/16 02:45 pm
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